Professor Stephen Lower's Chemistry Virtual Textbook Website (CAN)


A project by Professor Stephen Lower of Simon Fraser University (retired) which serves either as a supplement to a regular university Chemistry textbook or as a substitute for one. Various topics relevant to the 'A' Level syllabus such as chemical bonding, energetics and acid-base equilibria are fleshed out in great detail here. A large archive of media links to other digital Chemistry texts and video lectures is also made available for the learner's convenience.

Note: This has been featured with the personal consent of Professor Stephen Lower.

In his e-mail to us, he also emphasized:" The Virtual Textbook pages are all licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 license, whose terms can be seen at So you are free to list, extract, or adapt all or parts of it for your own needs. Although most of the images are my own (and are covered by the CC license), please note that those that have links associated with them are not; for these, the sources referenced in these links should be credited."